Brown Dwarfs – What Are They?

Brown Dwarfs – What Are They?

Difference between brown dwarfs and stars; how brown dwarfs’ early evolution is similar to that of protostars; gravitational contraction and how brown dwarfs burn deuterium and lithium; how matter inside brown dwarfs becomes degenerate; electron degeneracy explained and how this electron degeneracy impacts on size; difficulties in discovering brown dwarfs. Weather systems of brown dwarfs.

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The Force of Tension

The Force of Tension

Tension force and horizontal pulling forces. How Newton’s Laws of Motion can explain the force of tension; how tension remains constant when the forces pulling on a rope from opposite ends and in opposite directions become unbalanced; tension and vertical pulling forces ; explanation of tension in a cable which is attached a light to a ceiling; tension in the cable of an escalator; tension at the molecular level.

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Darwin Explores Rio de Janeiro

Darwin Explores Rio de Janeiro

The Beagle reaches Rio de Janeiro in April 1832. Darwin visits a slave plantation in the interior and is disgusted by what he sees of the treatment of black slaves. Darwin is captivated by the rainforest and all the specimens he observes for the first time. Darwin returns to Rio where he spends time discovering more new species including many invertebrates which he collects and preserves. The Beagle sets sail for Montevideo and Buenos Aires.

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Seed Dispersal by Fire

Seed Dispersal by Fire

This article discusses ways in which plants have adapted to disperse their seeds after fire has destroyed the landscape. Species explored include the Lodgepole pine trees and two Banksia species from Australia; how seeds disperse through the effects of smoke shock (Whispering Bells) and heat shock (Sweet Wattle) following forest fires; how species indirectly benefit from forest fires to help disperse their seeds.

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Friction and Forward Motion

Friction and Forward Motion

In this article we investigate the force of friction which opposes the forward motion of objects; we look at the force that needs to be applied to an object before friction can be overcome and forward motion can occur. We explain static and kinetic friction, how friction comes in pairs and represents the interaction between two different surfaces; what happens when a surface is frictionless, how friction can help or harm.

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Convergent Evolution -What Is It?

Convergent Evolution -What Is It?

This science artilce investigates convergent evolution in different organisms and how two totally unrelated species can evolve to resemble each other in different ways. We investigate convergent evolution in color, body shape, body organs, defensive spines, tongues, eyes, animal behavior, brain function, mimicry and in extinct species. We also look at convergent evolution in animals, plants, fish, insects and reptiles.

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Darwin Sails to South America

Darwin Sails to South America

Darwin sails from Plymouth on board HMS Beagle on Tuesday 27th December 1831. Disappointment at not setting foot on Tenerife; exploring the Cape Verde Islands and observations about wildlife and geology; brief stop over at St Peter’s and St Paul’s archipelago in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean; arriving at Salvador in Brazil and thrill of wandering through rainforest; loathing of slavery and tension between Darwin and Captain Fitzroy.

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Darwin joins HMS Beagle

Darwin joins HMS Beagle

Charles Darwin returns home from a geological field trip to find letters inviting him on a voyage round the world. Darwin has problems persuading his father that such an expedition would be a good idea. After securing his father’s agreement he journeys to London to meet Captain Fitzroy. He gathers together some scientific equipment and head towards Plymouth. HMS Beagle leaves Plymouth on 27th December 1831.

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Spores, Sphagnum Moss and Peatlands

Spores, Sphagnum Moss and Peatlands

Sphagnum Moss and how its spores accelerate incredibly fast; how Sphagnum moss reproduces and preferred habitats; how peat forms from Sphagnum moss; the formation of Sphagnum peatlands by two different processes which include terrestrialization and paludification; blanket bogs and raised peat bogs; some organisms which inhabit these peatlands; conditions in which Sphagnum peatlands thrive.

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Charles Darwin- The Cambridge Years ...

Charles Darwin- The Cambridge Years (1828-1831)

After dropping out of medical school Darwin studies for a degree at Christ’s College, Cambridge with a view to becoming ordained in the Church of England. Darwin maintains his interest in the natural world. Darwin is introduced to the latest craze of beetle collecting; he becomes the favorite student to the Professor of Botany John Henslow and learns about botany; he goes on a geological field trip to North Wales.

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