In this article we investigate the force of friction which opposes the forward motion of objects; we look at the force that needs to be applied to an object before friction can be overcome and forward motion can occur. We explain static and kinetic friction, how friction comes in pairs and represents the interaction between two different surfaces; what happens when a surface is frictionless, how friction can help or harm.
This science artilce investigates convergent evolution in different organisms and how two totally unrelated species can evolve to resemble each other in different ways. We investigate convergent evolution in color, body shape, body organs, defensive spines, tongues, eyes, animal behavior, brain function, mimicry and in extinct species. We also look at convergent evolution in animals, plants, fish, insects and reptiles.
Darwin sails from Plymouth on board HMS Beagle on Tuesday 27th December 1831. Disappointment at not setting foot on Tenerife; exploring the Cape Verde Islands and observations about wildlife and geology; brief stop over at St Peter’s and St Paul’s archipelago in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean; arriving at Salvador in Brazil and thrill of wandering through rainforest; loathing of slavery and tension between Darwin and Captain Fitzroy.
Charles Darwin returns home from a geological field trip to find letters inviting him on a voyage round the world. Darwin has problems persuading his father that such an expedition would be a good idea. After securing his father’s agreement he journeys to London to meet Captain Fitzroy. He gathers together some scientific equipment and head towards Plymouth. HMS Beagle leaves Plymouth on 27th December 1831.
Sphagnum Moss and how its spores accelerate incredibly fast; how Sphagnum moss reproduces and preferred habitats; how peat forms from Sphagnum moss; the formation of Sphagnum peatlands by two different processes which include terrestrialization and paludification; blanket bogs and raised peat bogs; some organisms which inhabit these peatlands; conditions in which Sphagnum peatlands thrive.
After dropping out of medical school Darwin studies for a degree at Christ’s College, Cambridge with a view to becoming ordained in the Church of England. Darwin maintains his interest in the natural world. Darwin is introduced to the latest craze of beetle collecting; he becomes the favorite student to the Professor of Botany John Henslow and learns about botany; he goes on a geological field trip to North Wales.
The early life of Charles Darwin in Shrewsbury, England; the death of his mother and his early interests; attending Edinburgh University to study medicine; a lack of interest in a medical career gives the young Charles plenty of time to explore the natural world; Darwin’s first scientific discoveries and his friendship with Robert Grant; membership of the Plinian Society; friendship with a freed black slave and learning taxidermy skills.
The composition of Jupiter including its core, three layers of hydrogen and lower armosphere; an explanation of metallic hydrogen and helium rain; how the lower atmosphere is made up of three different cloud layers; an explanation of the planet’s high pressure zones and low pressure belts; primordial heat inside Jupiter and the extensive jovian magnetic field; auroras, three faint rings and weather on Jupiter.
In this science article we examine Venus; how its atmosphere was similar to Earth’s 4 billion years ago; features of its atmosphere including its huge atmospheric pressure and sweltering heat; features of the planetary surface including continents, shield volcanoes, impact craters, mountains, lava flows and ‘pancake domes'; the planet’s magnetic field and how it differs from Earth’s magnetic field
An explanation of the pollination, seed dispersal by water and gravity, germination and growth of the common coconut or Cocos nucifera; how people use the common coconut and the main reasons for its amazingly wide dispersal; how the coconut fruit is actually a ‘dry drupe’ and has some things in common with peaches and other fleshy fruits; how the male and female flowers develop inside a sheathe.