Characteristics of planet Mars including its place in the Solar System, planetary interior, size compared to Earth, composition of atmosphere and atmospheric conditions; formation of clouds; ‘Mie effect’ red skies and blue sunsets; North and South Poles; small magnetosphere; lost of atmosphere and surface water,; significant physical features including Olympus Mons and Vallis Marineris, formation of Martian moons.
Summary of the Ptolemaic Earth centered view of the Universe; how the Earth centered (geocentric) view held currency for more than 1000 years; Copernicus and the sun centered (heliocentric) view of the Universe; why Copernicus harbored doubts about the sun centered model; an explanation of the stellar parallax; using the geometry of the Earth to calculate distance. ‘De Revolutionibus’ is published.
The composition of Jupiter including its core, three layers of hydrogen and lower armosphere; an explanation of metallic hydrogen and helium rain; how the lower atmosphere is made up of three different cloud layers; an explanation of the planet’s high pressure zones and low pressure belts; primordial heat inside Jupiter and the extensive jovian magnetic field; auroras, three faint rings and weather on Jupiter.
In this science article we examine Venus; how its atmosphere was similar to Earth’s 4 billion years ago; features of its atmosphere including its huge atmospheric pressure and sweltering heat; features of the planetary surface including continents, shield volcanoes, impact craters, mountains, lava flows and ‘pancake domes’; the planet’s magnetic field and how it differs from Earth’s magnetic field; amazing facts about the planet.
A description of planet Mercury including its slow rotation around its axis and short orbit around the Sun. An explanation of the planet’s atmosphere, elliptical orbit, magnetic field and the apparent motion of the Sun across the mercurian sky; a description of long mercurian nights and days. The main features of the planetary surface are explained which include some impact craters and impact basins.
This science project investigates the features and characteristics of planet Uranus; the length of a Uranian day; orbit of Uranus around the sun and Uranian seasons; weather and unusual axis of rotation; structure of the planet including its core, mantle and atmosphere; force of gravity and atmospheric pressure; eccentricity and perturbation of the moons; formation of rings and their composition.
William Herschel and his discovery of Uranus;mistaking Uranus for a comet; appointment as personal astronomer to the king; building a 40 foot telescope; his discovery of two moons of Saturn Mimas and Enceladus; his discovery of two moons of Uranus Titania and Oberon; observations about the Martian ice cap; invention of the term ‘asteroid’; discovery of infrared light; discovery that corals are animals and not plants