Adaptions allowing mangroves to populate intertidal areas including aerial stilt roots, pneumatophores, ways of disposing of excess salt and ways of conserving water. Features of red, black, white mangroves and buttonwoods and their zonation in mangrove forests. Seedlings of different mangrove species and their dispersal. How seedlings grow on parent trees before dropping off. Benefits to communities.
The evolution of prokaryotic bacteria in ancient seas 3.8 billion years ago; how cyanobacteria evolved to use visible light as a source of energy; the appearance of stromatolites in ancient seas; how the evolution of eukaroyotic cells led to the appearance of sea algae; how sea algae adapted to living on land to form the first land plants, the bryophytes. Some adaptions that prevent the dessication of bryophytes.
Sphagnum Moss and how its spores accelerate incredibly fast; how Sphagnum moss reproduces and preferred habitats; how peat forms from Sphagnum moss; the formation of Sphagnum peatlands by two different processes which include terrestrialization and paludification; blanket bogs and raised peat bogs; some organisms which inhabit these peatlands; conditions in which Sphagnum peatlands thrive.
An explanation of the pollination, seed dispersal by water and gravity, germination and growth of the common coconut or Cocos nucifera; how people use the common coconut and the main reasons for its amazingly wide dispersal; how the coconut fruit is actually a ‘dry drupe’ and has some things in common with peaches and other fleshy fruits; how the male and female flowers develop inside a sheathe.
The evolution, growth, pollination and seed dispersal of the Coco de Mer palm tree; how the Coco de Mer evolved over millions of years in the tropical rainforests of the Seychelles; discovery of the palm tree; the unusual way in which the Coco de Mer nut germinates; how nuts become infertile and how they reach the Maldives on ocean currents; the evolutionary pressures to grow bigger and bigger seeds.
We look at places where we might find wildflowers including mountains, forests and riverbanks.We discuss the differences between ‘wildflowers’ and ‘weeds’. We learn to identify ten different wildflowers commonly found in the UK including snowdrops, daisies, daffodils, bluebells, stinging nettles, cow parsley, poppies, buttercups, brambles and bindweed.
Children identify and name ten different common garden plants seen in British gardens in the summer including pansies, forget-me-nots, geraniums, lavenders, lilies, sunflowers, foxgloves, roses, busy lizzies and fuschias. Children identify different types of garden including large gardens with many flowers; large gardens with a mixture of trees and flowers; small colorful cottage gardens.