Difference between brown dwarfs and stars; how brown dwarfs’ early evolution is similar to that of protostars; gravitational contraction and how brown dwarfs burn deuterium and lithium; how matter inside brown dwarfs becomes degenerate; electron degeneracy explained and how this electron degeneracy impacts on size; difficulties in discovering brown dwarfs. Weather systems of brown dwarfs.
The conditions required for nuclear fusion to occur in the core of the sun; the requirements for extreme pressure, extreme heat and the presence of hydrogen. How the process of nuclear fusion takes place; the state of plasma that exists in the core of the sun and how protons fuse together to produce helium atoms; the state of hydrostatic equilibrium; the sun as it will be in 4.5 billion years time.
William Herschel’s early life and reasons for moving from Germany to England; how this accomplished musician became interested in astronomy; building his own telescope; refractor and reflector telescopes explained; discovery of binary stars and nebulae; hypothesis that nebulae were not only clouds of cosmic gas and dust but also contained stars; mapping the Milky Way; imaginary men on the moon!